For staging please refer to the Appendix in the original guideline document.
- Minimum work up should include computed tomography (CT) scan of the head, chest, abdomen and pelvis, or CT positron emission tomography (PET) scan, or either of the above with brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
- Enrolment in a clinical trial is preferred.
- Complete resection results in a 5% long-term complete remission or cure rate and may contribute greatly to the quality of life.
- If primary chemotherapy is used, consideration should be given to subsequent resection.
- Options include:
- Enrolment in a clinical trial (preferred)
- Following resection, a number of systemic therapies have been investigated (e.g., interferon-alpha [IFN-alpha], dacarbazine, temozolomide, high-dose interleukin-2 [IL-2], combination chemotherapy with cisplatin or vinblastine with or without IL-1 and IFN-alpha, and paclitaxel alone or in combination with platinum-based chemotherapy); however, no convincing disease-free survival or overall survival benefits have been documented.
- Following systemic therapy, scans should be repeated.
- If scans are negative for other disease, resect as necessary. If there is no further evidence of disease, consider clinical trial OR IFN-alpha OR observation. If there is residual disease, treat as disseminated (unresectable) disease (e.g., additional systemic therapy, surgical resection, or radiation for palliative care and symptom management).
- If scans are positive for other disease, treat as disseminated (unresectable) disease.
An algorithm titled "Algorithm for the Management of Melanoma Stage IV" is provided on the Alberta Health Services Web site .
Resectable stage IV primary cutaneous melanoma without nodal disease
To outline treatment and management strategies for patients with resectable stage IV primary cutaneous melanoma without nodal disease
Patients with resectable stage IV primary cutaneous melanoma without nodal disease
- Computed tomography (CT) scan of the head, chest, abdomen and pelvis
- CT positron emission tomography (PET) scan
- Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
- Enrolment in a clinical trial
- Complete resection
- Primary chemotherapy followed by resection
- Systemic therapy following resection
- Interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha)
- High-dose interleukin-2 (IL-2)
- Combination chemotherapy with cisplatin or vinblastine with or without IL-1 and IFN-alpha
- Paclitaxel alone or in combination with platinum-based chemotherapy
- Repeated scans following systemic therapy to direct further management
- Response rates
- Survival rate (overall, progression-free, 5-year)
- Quality of life
Hand-searches of Published Literature (Primary Sources)
Searches of Electronic Databases
Specific research questions to be addressed by the guideline document were formulated by the guideline lead(s) and Knowledge Management (KM) Specialist using the PICO question format (Patient or Population, Intervention, Comparisons, Outcomes).
What are the best treatment and management options for improving the survival and management of symptoms in patients with resectable Stage IV primary cutaneous melanoma?
The MEDLINE, Cochrane, American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) Abstracts and Proceedings, and CANCERLIT databases were searched (1985 through November 2009) for clinical trials. Search terms included: "resectable" or "stage IV" or "advanced" or "metastatic" and "primary cutaneous melanoma" AND "surgery" or "metastectomy" or "radiation therapy" or "chemotherapy" or "interleukin" or "interferon" or "taxane" or "supportive care" or "palliative care." A total of 82 clinical trials (limits: human and English language) were returned, from which 29 documents were selected. In addition, the National Guideline Clearinghouse and individual guideline organizations were searched for practice guidelines relevant to this topic.
For the 2013 update of the guideline, PubMed was searched for evidence on resectable stage IV melanoma. The search term "melanoma" was used and results were limited to clinical trials, published between December 2009 and January 2013. Citations were hand-searched for studies pertaining to in-transit disease.
Systematic Review with Evidence Tables
Evidence was selected and reviewed by a working group comprised of members from the Alberta Provincial Cutaneous Tumour Team and a Knowledge Management (KM) Specialist from the Guideline Utilization Resource Unit (GURU). A detailed description of the methodology followed during the guideline development process can be found in the GURU Handbook (see the "Availability of Companion Documents" field).
Evidence tables containing the first author, year of publication, patient group/stage of disease, methodology, and main outcomes of interest are assembled using the studies identified in the literature search. Existing guidelines on the topic are assessed by the KM Specialist using portions of the Appraisal of Guidelines Research and Evaluation (AGREE) II instrument (http://www.agreetrust.org ) and those meeting the minimum requirements are included in the evidence document. Due to limited resources, GURU does not regularly employ the use of multiple reviewers to rank the level of evidence; rather, the methodology portion of the evidence table contains the pertinent information required for the reader to judge for himself the quality of the studies.
The working group members formulate the guideline recommendations based on the evidence synthesized by the Knowledge Management (KM) Specialist during the planning process, blended with expert clinical interpretation of the evidence. As detailed in the Guideline Utilization Resource Unit Handbook (see the "Availability of Companion Documents" field), the working group members may decide to adopt the recommendations of another institution without any revisions, adapt the recommendations of another institution or institutions to better reflect local practices, or develop their own set of recommendations by adapting some, but not all, recommendations from different guidelines.
The degree to which a recommendation is based on expert opinion of the working group and/or the Provincial Tumour Team members is explicitly stated in the guideline recommendations. Similar to the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) methodology for formulating guideline recommendations, the Guideline Utilization Resource Unit does not use formal rating schemes for describing the strength of the recommendations, but rather describes, in conventional and explicit language, the type and quality of the research and existing guidelines that were taken into consideration when formulating the recommendations.
Following a review of the evidence by the Alberta Provincial Cutaneous Tumour Team, no major changes to the recommendations were made.
A formal cost analysis was not performed and published analyses were not reviewed.
Internal Peer Review
This guideline was reviewed and endorsed by the Alberta Provincial Cutaneous Tumour Team.
When the draft guideline document has been completed, revised, and reviewed by the Knowledge Management (KM) Specialist and the working group members, it is sent to all members of the Provincial Tumour Team for review and comment. This step ensures that those intended to use the guideline have the opportunity to review the document and identify potential difficulties for implementation before the guideline is finalized. Depending on the size of the document, and the number of people it is sent to for review, a deadline of one to two weeks will usually be given to submit any feedback. Ideally, this review will occur prior to the annual Provincial Tumour Team meeting, and a discussion of the proposed edits will take place at the meeting. The working group members will then make final revisions to the document based on the received feedback, as appropriate. Once the guideline is finalized, it will be officially endorsed by the Provincial Tumour Team Lead and the Executive Director of Provincial Tumour Programs.
The recommendations were developed based on evidence from clinical trials as well as existing guidelines.
Appropriate management of resectable stage IV primary cutaneous melanoma without nodal disease
- Because chemoimmunotherapy is significantly more toxic (grade 3+ events) than chemotherapy, it should be used only in select patients (i.e., those with good performance status [Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) 0-1] and normal lactate dehydrogenase levels).
- Toxicity of chemotherapy
The recommendations contained in this guideline are a consensus of the Alberta Provincial Cutaneous Tumour Team and are a synthesis of currently accepted approaches to management, derived from a review of relevant scientific literature. Clinicians applying these guidelines should, in consultation with the patient, use independent medical judgment in the context of individual clinical circumstances to direct care.
- Present the guideline at the local and provincial tumour team meetings and weekly rounds.
- Post the guideline on the Alberta Health Services website.
- Send an electronic notification of the new guideline to all members of CancerControl Alberta.
|Alberta Provincial Cutaneous Tumour Team. Management of resectable stage IV primary cutaneous melanoma without nodal disease. Edmonton (Alberta): CancerControl Alberta; 2013 Feb. 9 p. (Clinical practice guideline; no. CU-009). [25 references]|
Not applicable: The guideline was not adapted from another source.
2010 May (revised 2013 Feb)
CancerControl Alberta - State/Local Government Agency [Non-U.S.]
There was no direct industry involvement in the development or dissemination of this guideline.
Alberta Provincial Cutaneous Tumour Team
Members of the Alberta Provincial Cutaneous Tumour Team include medical oncologists, radiation oncologists, surgical oncologists, dermatologists, nurses, pathologists, and pharmacists.
Participation of members of the Alberta Provincial Cutaneous Tumour Team in the development of this guideline has been voluntary and the authors have not been remunerated for their contributions. CancerControl Alberta recognizes that although industry support of research, education and other areas is necessary in order to advance patient care, such support may lead to potential conflicts of interest. Some members of the Alberta Provincial Cutaneous Tumour Team are involved in research funded by industry or have other such potential conflicts of interest. However the developers of this guideline are satisfied it was developed in an unbiased manner.
This is the current release of the guideline.
This guideline updates a previous version: Alberta Provincial Cutaneous Tumour Team. Management of resectable stage IV primary cutaneous melanoma without nodal disease. Edmonton (Alberta): Alberta Health Services, Cancer Care; 2010 May. 8 p. (Clinical practice guideline; no. CU-009).
Available from the Alberta Health Services Web site .
The following is available:
- Guideline utilization resource unit handbook. Edmonton (Alberta): CancerControl Alberta; 2013 Jan. 5 p.
This NGC summary was completed by ECRI Institute on December 31, 2012. The information was verified on February 5, 2013. This summary was updated by ECRI Institute on April 28, 2014. The updated information was verified by the guideline developer on May 23, 2014.
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